Reading Disorder commonly known as dyslexia affects 80 percent of all those recognised as learning disabled. Dyslexia can be as a result of a deficit in the phonological module which is part of the language structure and responsible for processing the sounds of dialogue. Words are created from phonemes involuntarily for the talker and decomposes the words into phonemes for the hearer by the phonological system. The phonologic-deficit theory states dyslexics have trouble deconstructing written and spoken words into smaller elements of sound therefore precluding word identification. Typical problem areas that surface include spelling, grammar and reading. As a result, this prevents reading comprehension due to a lack of orthographic coding, that is operating the visual module to recognise the arrangement of letters on a page.
Irregularities in the neural processes in dyslexics are revealed through studies of brain function. Studies implementing different methodologies such as fMRIs and PET across multiple tasks such as rhyming, explicit and implicit reading etc., indicate during phonological processing, individuals with dyslexia display reduced activity in the left temporal cortex and over stimulation of the left inferior frontal area. These results imply phonological processing involves both temporal and frontal lobes when reading
Cognitive issues associated with Dyslexia
Studies suggest dyslexics have deficits in their working memory, executive function and attention. Working memory involves a person’s capability to rationalise with new information and shift attention to goal-driven material. Cognitive issues associated with poor working memory include trouble with reviewing or repeating a story, comprehension and proclaiming novel or unfamiliar words. Executive function comprises of cognitive processes that sanction goal driven and controlled behaviour. This is particularly important in the developmental year as the executive function is involved in self-direct learning. Cognitive problems associated with poor executive functioning include difficulty with discriminating similarities and differences in words. Attention refers to the ability for an individual to focus on a particular task at a given point of time. Dyslexics find paying attention especially challenging thus avoid reading aloud and have little pleasure of leisure reading.